Oussama Saoudi and Hamidreza Mahyar
Adv. Artif. Intell. Mach. Learn., 3 (1):669-692
Oussama Saoudi : McMaster University
Hamidreza Mahyar : McMaster University
Article History: Received on: 10-Jan-23, Accepted on: 06-Feb-23, Published on: 15-Feb-23
Corresponding Author: Oussama Saoudi
Citation: Oussama Saoudi (2023). Autonomous Vehicles: Open-Source Technologies, Considerations, and Development. Adv. Artif. Intell. Mach. Learn., 3 (1 ):669-692
Autonomous vehicles are the culmination of advances in many areas such as sensor tech-
nologies, artificial intelligence (AI), networking, and more. This paper will introduce the
reader to the technologies that build autonomous vehicles. It will focus on open-source
tools and libraries for autonomous vehicle development, making it cheaper and easier for
developers and researchers to participate in the field. The topics covered are as follows.
First, we will discuss the sensors used in autonomous vehicles and summarize their perfor-
mance in different environments, costs, and unique features. Then we will cover Simul-
taneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) and algorithms for each modality. Third, we
will review popular open-source driving simulators, a cost-effective way to train machine
learning models and test vehicle software performance. We will then highlight embedded
operating systems and the security and development considerations when choosing one.
After that, we will discuss Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Internet-of-Vehicle (IoV) com-
munication, which are areas that fuse networking technologies with autonomous vehicles
to extend their functionality. We will then review the five levels of vehicle automation,
commercial and open-source Advanced Driving Assistance Systems, and their features.
Finally, we will touch on the major manufacturing and software companies involved in
the field, their investments, and their partnerships. These topics will give the reader an
understanding of the industry, its technologies, active research, and the tools available for
developers to build autonomous vehicles.